Rattlesnakes in Georgia (3 Species)

Rattlesnakes in Georgia are fairly common, found in all areas of the state, and live in many different types of habitats. Georgia’s warmer climate, especially in the southern parts of the state, can be perfect for many different cold-blooded species.

Georgia is the 24th largest state boasting 59,425 square miles. The state has 11 national parks which includes the Chattahoochee National Forest and its over 867k acres of untouched forest that spans across 26 of Georgia’s counties. Even though rattlesnakes tend to avoid urban areas, all of this wilderness can provide rattlesnakes with plenty of suitable habitats.

Anyway, let’s have a look at Georgia’s rattlesnakes!

3​ species of rattlesnake in Georgia

T​he three species of rattlesnake in Georgia are the pygmy rattlesnake, the eastern diamondback rattlesnake, and the timber rattlesnake.

1. Pygmy Rattlesnake

image by Florida Fish and Wildlife via Flickr | CC BY-ND 2.0

Species name: Sistrurus miliarius
A​dult length: 24 inches

The pygmy rattlesnake can be found throughout most of Georgia, their range extends north almost to the Tennessee border. They’re gray in color with brown and orange markings down their backs. Pygmy rattlesnakes, named for their small size, are commonly thought to be one of the prettier rattlesnake species.

T​hey prefer to live in wooded areas and floodplains, and they eat small mammals, insects, and lizards. Their rattle so small it can only be heard from a few feet away, so often by the time you hear one you’re already dangerously close. Fortunately, these diminutive snakes can’t produce enough venom to deliver a fatal bite to a human, although it would still be an unpleasant experience.

2. E​astern Diamondback Rattlesnake

image by Peter Paplanus via Flickr | CC BY 2.0

Species name: Crotalus adamanteus
A​dult length: 94 inches

I​n stark contrast to the pygmy rattlesnake, the eastern diamondback is the largest of all rattlesnake species, and one of the heaviest venomous snakes in the western hemisphere. The coloration is very similar to the western diamond back, but a few shades darker. The distinctive diamond pattern on the back, plus its great size, gives this snake away.

You’ll find in Southern Georgia, in just about every kind of habitat. Rabbits are their favorite food, but they’ll also eat rats, and occasionally birds. It’s not a very aggressive species, but it’s massive size means it has very long fangs and produces a lot of venom, so bites are especially dangerous. In fact, it’s widely considered the most dangerous snake in North America.

3. Timber Rattlesnake

source: USFWS Midwest Region

Species name: Crotalus horridus
A​dult length: 60 inches

Timber rattlesnakes are common throughout most of Georgia, with a few spotty areas where they aren’t found. Their range extends far up into the northeast, where the weather gets quite cold in the winter.

T​hey have a pattern of dark cross-bands over a brown or gray background. They like to live in rugged, heavily wooded areas where they hunt small mammals, birds, and frogs. They are large snakes and produce a lot of venom, making bites highly dangerous, but they are very mild mannered, and tend to give longer warning rattles than most other species.

6 commonly asked questions about rattlesnakes in Georgia

1. I​s it illegal to kill a rattlesnake in Georgia?

N​one of the rattlesnake species in Georgia are endangered, and if you encounter one you can legally kill it. We would urge you only to do this if you find one near your home where it presents a danger to your family and your pets, since rattlesnakes are an important part of the ecosystem, and the snakes living out in the wild aren’t a threat to you.

Also, please note that it is illegal to kill any non-venomous snakes in Georgia.

2. W​here do rattlesnakes live in Georgia?

Rattlesnakes live all throughout the state of Georgia, in every type of habitat. Some common rattlesnake habitats in Georgia might be forest, grasslands, swamps, or wetlands.

3. H​ow long do Georgia rattlesnakes get?

T​hat depends on the species. Pygmy rattlesnakes are only a couple of feet long at most, and they’re actually small enough that they don’t present much danger to humans. Timber rattlesnakes can be up to five feet long, which is quite large, but still not the biggest. Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes top out at nearly eight feet long, making them the largest of any rattlesnake species.

4. W​hat eats rattlesnakes?

Despite their potent venom, rattlesnakes do have many natural predators. Birds of prey like hawks, owls and eagles will occasionally hunt them, but their most dangerous predators are actually other snakes.

Kingsnakes are expert rattlesnake hunters- they’re even immune to the venom of the rattlesnake. Every species of kingsnake will hunt other snakes, and in the wild almost all of them will target rattlesnakes to some extent.

Racers of various species will also hunt rattlesnakes, and the indigo snake, North America’s largest snake species, is also immune to rattlesnake venom and therefore hunts them frequently.

5. Can Georgia rattlesnakes kill you?

Georgia’s rattlesnakes can definitely deliver a lethal bite. Pygmy rattlesnakes may not be lethal to adults, but they could kill a child. Timber and eastern diamondback rattlesnakes are both potentially among the most dangerous snakes in the world, and either is fully capable of killing a human.

If you get bit by a rattlesnake in Georgia, seek medical help immediately.

6. I​s a rattlesnake more dangerous than a water moccasin?

With the usual caveat that it depends on the species, typically, yes. Water moccasins will almost always try to avoid biting you if they can, while even the most docile rattlesnake is going to bite you if their warning rattle doesn’t work.

Water moccasin bites aren’t as dangerous as timber rattlesnake or eastern diamondback rattlesnake bites, although they’re considerably more dangerous than a pygmy rattlesnake bite. You’re probably more likely to encounter a water moccasin in Georgia, although they’re fairly shy animals and you may never notice you’ve walked by one.

Robert from ReptileJam

Hey, I'm Robert, and I have a true passion for reptiles that began when I was just 10 years old. My parents bought me my first pet snake as a birthday present, which sparked my interest in learning more about them. read more...